Rich Riding, State Weed Specialist
The following weeds are hereby officially designated and published as noxious for the State of Utah, as per the authority vested in the Commissioner of Agriculture and Food under Section 4-17-3:
There are hereby designated five classes of noxious weeds in the state: Class 1A (EDRR Watch List), Class 1 (EDRR), Class 2 (Control), Class 3 (Containment), and Class 4 (Prohibited for sale or propagation).
Class 1A: Early Detection Rapid Response (EDRR) Watch List Declared noxious and invasive weeds not native to the state of Utah and not known to exist in the State that pose a serious threat to the state and should be considered as a very high priority.
Common crupina - Crupina vulgaris
African rue - Peganum harmala
Small bugloss - Anchusa arvensis
Mediterranean sage - Salvia aethiopis
Spring millet - Milium vernale
Syrian beancaper - Zygophyllum fabago
Ventenata (North Africa grass) - Ventenata dubia
Plumeless thistle - Carduus acanthoides
Malta starthistle - Centaurea melitensis
Class 1B: Early Detection Rapid Response (EDRR) Declared noxious and invasive weeds not native to the State of Utah that are known to exist in the state in very limited populations and pose a serious threat to the state and should be considered as a very high priority.
Camelthorn - Alhagi maurorum
Garlic mustard - Alliaria petiolata
Purple starthistle - Centaurea calcitrapa
Goatsrue - Galega officinalis
African mustard - Brassica tournefortii
Giant reed - Arundo donax
Japanese knotweed - Polygonum cuspidatum
Blueweed (Vipers bugloss) - Echium vulgare
Elongated mustard - Brassica elongata
Common St. Johnswort - Hypericum perforatum
Oxeye daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare
Cutleaf vipergrass - Scorzonera laciniata
Class 2: Control Declared noxious and invasive weeds not native to the state of Utah, that pose a threat to the state and should be considered a high priority for control. Weeds listed in the control list are known to exist in varying populations throughout the state. The concentration of these weeds is at a level where control or eradication may be possible.
Leafy spurge - Euphorbia esula
Medusahead - Taeniatherum caput-medusae
Rush skeletonweed - Chondrilla juncea
Spotted knapweed - Centaurea stoebe
Purple loosestrife - Lythrum salicaria
Squarrose knapweed - Centaurea virgata
Dyers woad - Isatis tinctoria
Yellow starthistle - Centaurea solstitialis
Yellow toadflax - Linaria vulgaris
Diffuse knapweed - Centaurea diffusa
Black henbane - Hyoscyamus niger
Dalmation toadflax - Linaria dalmatica
Class 3: Containment Declared noxious and invasive weeds not native to the State of Utah that are widely spread. Weeds listed in the containment noxious weeds list are known to exist in various populations throughout the state. Weed control efforts may be directed at reducing or eliminating new or expanding weed populations. Known and established weed populations, as determined by the weed control authority, may be managed by any approved weed control methodology, as determined by the weed control authority. These weeds pose a threat to the agricultural industry and agricultural products.
Russian knapweed - Acroptilon repens
Houndstounge - Cynoglossum officianale
Perennial pepperweed (Tall whitetop) - Lepidium latifolium
Phragmites (Common reed) - Phragmites australis ssp.
Tamarisk (Saltcedar) - Tamarix ramosissima
Hoary cress - Cardaria spp.
Canada thistle - Cirsium arvense
Poison hemlock - Conium maculatum
Musk thistle - Carduus nutans
Quackgrass - Elymus repens
Jointed goatgrass - Aegilops cylindrica
Bermudagrass* - Cynodon dactylon
Perennial Sorghum spp.: Johnson Grass (Sorghum halepense) and Sorghum almum (Sorghum almum).
Scotch thistle (Cotton thistle) - Onopordum acanthium
Field bindweed (Wild Morning-glory) - Convolvulus spp.
Puncturevine (Goathead) - Tribulus terrestris
*Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) shall not be a noxious weed in Washington County and shall not be subject to provisions of the Utah Noxious Weed Law within the boundaries of that county. It shall be a noxious weed throughout all other areas of the State of Utah and shall be subject to the laws therein.
Class 4: Prohibited Declared noxious and invasive weeds, not native to the state of Utah, that pose a threat to the state through the retail sale or propagation in the nursery and greenhouse industry. Prohibited noxious weeds are annual, biennial, or perennial plants that the commissioner designates as having the potential or are known to be detrimental to human or animal health, the environment, public roads, crops, or other property.
Cogongrass (Japanese blood grass) - Imperata cylindrica
Myrtle spurge - Euphorbia myrsinites
Dames Rocket - Hesperis matronalis
Scotch broom - Cytisus scoparius
Russian olive - Elaeagnus angustifolia
Each county in Utah may have different priorities regarding specific State designated Noxious Weeds and is therefore able to reprioritize these weeds for their own needs.
The Weed Specialist coordinates weed control activities among the county weed organizations and the agricultural field representatives. Surveys of serious weed infestations are conducted and control programs are developed through the county supervisors, county weed boards, and various landowning agencies. The weed specialist and the inspectors work continually with extension and research personnel in encouraging the use of the most effective methods to control the more serious weeds.
Includes Regional Weed Free Forage Certification Standards
Phytosanitary Inspection requirements and standards for certification of hay and straw to meet the requirements of the Utah Noxious Weed Act (Utah Code 4-17) and Rules pertaining to this act (68-09). The requirements of the U.S. Forest Service revised closure order N0. 04-00-052 effective January 30, 1995, the Bureau of Land Management beginning November 1998, the SITLA weed free Rule September 2001, and other state and federal agencies will be met by certifying to the standards set forth in State Code and Rule.
A. Upon the request of an applicant, the Department or an authorized representative will inspect hay and straw for compliance with the standards set forth in these procedures and in keeping with the state code and rule
Authorized representative may include; Department quality compliance specialists, county weed supervisors and others who have been designated by the Department to do weed certifications.
The certificates shall document that the following requirements have been met, based upon a reasonable and prudent visual inspection.
C. Inspection procedure and requirements:
E. Failure to comply:
Failure to comply with all inspection and certification procedures and standards will be cause for a grower, distributor or inspector to be suspended from the hay and straw certification program.
Effective date: January 1, 1996
Regional Weed Free Forage Certification Standards are required as part of the Utah Hay and Straw Weed Phytosanitary Inspection Policy and Procedures.
Forage shall be free of those noxious weeds or undesirable plant species identified on the Regional Noxious Weed List.
Field Inspection Standards:
Minimum Guidelines for Field Inspection:
The inspector will follow the following inspection procedures:
Search begins for Arizona durum wheat in Utah
Utah Commissioner of Agriculture and Food, Cary G. Peterson signed an emergency order, March 28, 1996 imposing a quarantine on the movement of grains and other possible host materials into Utah from areas affected by the fungus, Karnal bunt. The Utah quarantine is adopted from a federal quarantine by reference which was signed by U.S. Department of Agriculture Secretary Dan Glickman. The areas under quarantine include: the state of Arizona and certain areas of New Mexico and Texas.
Karnal bunt is a fungal disease of wheat, durum wheat and triticale which was detected in durum seed grown in Arizona in March, 1996.
Commissioner Peterson also is calling for a statewide survey of wheat and wheat seed products in Utah to detect the presence of the Karnal bunt fungus.
The UDAF and the USDA- APHIS are requesting that Utah wheat farmers and wheat seed dealers check their inventory immediately for wheat or wheat seed purchased from Arizona suppliers during the past several months. Infected durum wheat varieties are: Reva lot #I or #2 and Durex lot # 1.
Please report the discovery of such wheat to the Utah Department of Agriculture and Food at (801) 538-7123. The USDA pledges to reimburse farmers/dealers for any losses.
The action is prompted by a USDA quarantine placed on Arizona, as well as four counties in New Mexico and two counties in Texas. U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, Dan Glickman declared the discovery of Karnal bunt fungus an "extra-ordinary emergency" after the fungus was detected March 8 in two durum wheat seed lots in Arizona. Since then the fungus has been detected in New Mexico and Texas.
The UDAF's role in this effort is to work with other state and federal agencies so Utah can be reasonably certain that it remains free from Karnal bunt fungus, and that infected grain does not enter the state.
Karnal bunt is a disease of wheat, durum wheat and triticale (a hybrid of wheat and rye). The disease affects both yield and grain quality. It adversely affects the color, odor and palatability of flour and other foodstuffs made from wheat. It does not present a risk to human health. To date, Karnal bunt has been confined in four varieties of durum wheat -- Reva, Ocotillo, Durex, and Kronos. Durum wheat, a speciality wheat crop, comprises only 4.7 percent of the total wheat produced in the United States in 1995-96.
The USDA has cut off wheat shipments to 21 countries that mention Karnal bunt in their phytosanitary requirements. Wheat prices took a quick dip after the fungus was confirmed. The U.S.'s wheat export market is valued at about $4.9 billion, and the US is the world's leading wheat exporter, accounting for one-third of world wheat exports. Utah's 1995 wheat crop is valued at $39.9 million dollars, the highest value for that crop in several years. Utah wheat farmers raise very little durum wheat, and the likelihood is low that Karnal bunt fungus is present in the state. Farmers and dealers should be aware of the possibility of cross contamination of the various wheat varieties, and they should be alert to contamination through contact with railroad cars, trucks, farm machinery, etc.
The USDA said it believes this is a localized find of Karnal bunt, and emergency quarantines have been put into place on those infected properties, seed, farm equipment, planted wheat and soil associated with the infected wheat. In addition, USDA has established a scientific panel that met March 14 in Arizona to review and update the existing emergency plan. The panel is also investigating how the fungus was introduced.
Karnal bunt was first reported in 1931 in the Indian State of Haryana in wheat-growing areas near the city of Karnal, from which the disease gets its name. Since then, it has been found in all major wheat- growing areas of India, as well as in Pakistan, Iraq, and Afghanistan. Karnal bunt may have been -present in Mexico since 1970 and has been well established in some areas in northwestern Mexico since 1982. Until recently, the disease was not known to exist in the United States.
Posted March 28,1996
The Utah Department of Agriculture and Food (UDAF) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture agreed to begin statewide testing of wheat to ensure Utah remains free from Karnal bunt fungus. The testing is part of a $3-million nationwide effort to identify and eradicate the fungus. Karnal bunt is not a known health threat to humans.
Many foreign countries are banning the importation of American wheat unless shipments can be verified that they are from areas certified to be free from Karnal bunt. No Karnal bunt has been detected in Utah. Utah exports much of its wheat to European and Pacific Rim nations. One-third of the U.S.'s $5-billion wheat crop is exported.
"Utah must send a message to the countries that buy our wheat that we will take whatever steps necessary to ensure that Utah wheat remains disease free and wholesome," said Utah Commissioner of Agriculture, Cary Peterson. Peterson met with more than 20 leaders of the Utah wheat industry to update them on the Karnal bunt crisis, and take suggestions on how to protect Utah's $40 million dollar wheat crop. There are approximately 1300 wheat farms in Utah producing about 185,000 acres of wheat.
Karnal bunt was detected for the first time in the U.S. in Arizona on March 8, 1996. Since then federal and state quarantines have banned the movement of infected wheat and farm machinery and vehicles.
Commissioner Peterson signed an emergency order on March 28, banning the importation of wheat, wheat seed and farm equipment from infected areas of Arizona, Texas, New Mexico, and California.
"I don't think any of those infected Arizona lots got into Utah," said Commissioner Peterson. Immediately following the discovery of Karnal bunt, Utah ordered its grain inspectors to inventory existing lots of wheat and wheat seed in Utah. Utah ports-of-entry were also alerted to inspect for shipments of grain from infected areas.
The Utah testing program will begin in July 1996, during the wheat harvest season. Scientists from the USDA and UDA will test samples of wheat at 18 locations throughout Utah. The locations are: Newton, Cache Junction, Garland, Honeyville, Brigham City, Ogden, Kaysville, Draper, Heber City, Lehi, Myton, Roosevelt, Spanish Fork, Moroni, Delta, Minersville, Beryl, and Monticello.
The Utah testing program is expected to last from two to five years. Commissioner Peterson also called for universities and colleges in Utah to initiate research projects to focus on better understanding Karnal bunt, and its eradication.
Present at the meeting were representatives from: USU Extension Service, Utah Crop Improvement Assn., USDA-APHIS, Utah Seed Council, the LDS Church, Utah Farm Bureau Federation, Utah mill and elevator operators, Utah seed and feed dealers, and private wheat farmers.
Posted April 11, 1996